Fortress 52 The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068-1945. Paperback
Gibraltar, located at the meeting points of Europe and Africa, preserves within its fortifications a rich testament to human conflict spanning 600 years. In 1068 the ruling Spanish Muslims built a large fort there. Between 1309 and 1374 Gibraltar underwent a period of intensive building and fortification, and following the Spanish reconquest of 1462 the inhabitants carried out further works. In 1704 the latest, uninterrupted period of British rule began. The 18th century saw three sieges including the most severe, known as the Great Siege, which lasted from 1779 to 1783. During World War II the 'Rock' served as a vital stop for supply convoys and naval staging base, complete with a veritable warren of secret tunnels. This book documents Gibraltar's rich history, and charts the development of these fascinating fortifications.
Introduction · Chronology · Islamic Gibraltar · The Spanish defences · The 18th-century British fortifications and the Great Siege · 'Strong as the Rock': Gibraltar and the British Empire · The development of the Naval Yard · Aftermath · The sites today · Bibliography · Glossary · Index